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Three candidates, Peter, Lane and Vann have already obtained the quota of votes and are declared elected at Stage1

Ballot Paper

Once upon a time, you were only given one ballot paper.
This ballot paper was only counted once in a secure polling booth.
So one vote had only one ‘value’ and all voters could understand the system.

Now days your vote may be counted again once more or several times more depending on the counting system used in any particular election in Council, State or Federal elections in any particular country at a depreciating level for people you may not know, dislike or even adhor.

Voters have seldom had complex systems of vote counting explained to them. The Daily Telegraph UK (June 11,2000) has done so, as follows:


(A) First past the post

How it works
Put X (
or 1 depending on the relevant rules) next to the name of a candidate.
The candidate with the most votes wins.

Advantage
Easy to understand. A voter can express a view on which party should win.

Disadvantage
Wastes millions of voters as those that have been cast for the loser, or the winner above the level they need to get a seat, count for nothing.

Who wins
Conservatives and Labor

Who loses
Liberal Democrats and minor parties.


(B) Alternative (preferential) vote  (Australia and New Zealand)

How it works
Candidates are ranked in order of preference. If no one receives more than 50% of the vote, the one with the least votes is eliminated. Votes are re-allocated according to second choices until someone has 50%.

Advantage
Sitting MP’s would have most of local electorate’s support.

Disadvantage
Prone to ‘donkey’ voting as voters rank candidates without knowing enough about them.

Who wins
Conservatives and Labor

Who loses
Minor Parties


(C) Proportional representation (EU elections for England, Scotland and Wales)
The NZ parliament plans to abolish this system as unworkable.

How it works
Closed party list system. Votes are cast for parties not people. MP’s ranking on the list is decided by party managers.

Advantage
Lists ensure women and ethnic minorities are represented.

Disadvantage
Lists are impersonal, weakening any link between MP and local area.

Who wins
Party managers who choose candidates. Minor parties such as the BNP

Who loses
Voters who have no choice of candidate. Conservatives and Labor


(D) Additional member (Scottish Parliament, Welsh and London Assemblies)

How it works
Vote via first past the post with a second vote for party of choice.

Advantage
Voter can support candidates campaigning on single issues, such as hospitals and their favourite party.

Disadvantage
Some MP’s are chosen for being a member of a party rather than on their merits.

Who wins
Minor parties

Who loses
Tories and Labor


(E) Single Transferable Vote (Northern Ireland)

How it works
Preferential voting in multi-member constituency. Each voter gets one ballot, which translates from their first to their second preference. Candidates with least votes are eliminated and votes redistributed.

Advantages
Voters get more choice than any other system.

Disadvantages
It can lead to massive constituencies.

Who wins
Candidates rather than party managers

Who loses
Party managers


(F) Supplementary Vote (London Mayoral Contest)

How it works
Put X in the first column for first choice candidate, another in the second column. When a candidate gets 50% of the vote, they are elected. If not, votes for a second choice are reallocated between two top candidates.

Advantage
It gives the voter more power because both first and second preference count.

Disadvantage
The winner may not have the support of at least 50% of the electorate.

Who wins
Liberal Democrats and Greens

Who loses
Conservatives and Labour


(G) Alternative Vote Plus  (Proposed by UK Jenkins Commission in 1999)

How it works
Hybrid system where about 500 MP’s are elected for individual constituencies after voters rank candidates in order of preference. Top-up of about 150 members to ensure a broad proportionality between votes cast and seats won.

Advantage
It retains the link between the constituency and the Member of Parliament.

Disadvantage
No proportionality in constituency.

Who wins
Liberal Democrats (left-leaning) and/or minor parties

Who Loses
Tories/Labour

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